Instantaneous Responses of on-grid PV Plants to Changes in Environmental and Weather Conditions

Farzad Hosseini, behnam mostajeran goortani, Mehdi Niroomand


The operation of an on-grid, 20 KW, PV, pilot plant is analyzed. The instantaneous environmental and weather conditions including solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed are recorded and analyzed, simultaneously along with, the instantaneous data from the plant including PV module temperature, generated power, current, and voltage. The power decreases with increasing ambient temperature. Increasing solar irradiance increases the temperature difference between modules and ambient. Instantaneous energy and exergy efficiencies during three different days, representing sunny, partly cloudy, and cloudy days, are further calculated. The energy efficiency varies between 5.76% and 15.53%, while that of exergy varies between 4.84% and 15.73%. For cloudy days, the exergy efficiency is higher than that of energy efficiency, while for a sunny day it is in reverse. Another important parameter affecting the generated power is partial shading on PV modules, particularly during early mornings and late afternoons. The instantaneous shading varies between 3% and 9%, because of small azimuth and elevation angles. It was found that partial shading of only 4.73% on PV modules may result significant power decrease of more than 52.3%. A new algorithm based on Fuzzy Logic is proposed to overcome the power decrease even under partial shading conditions.


PV cell; instantaneous respond; Exergy and energy efficiency; partial shading

Full Text:



Chander, S., Purohit, A., Sharma, A., Nehra, S.P. and Dhaka, M.S., 2015. " A study on photovoltaic parameters of mono-crystalline silicon solar cell with cell temperature." Energy Reports, 1, pp.104-109.

Mekhilef, S., R. Saidur, and M. Kamalisarvestani., 2012 "Effect of dust, humidity and air velocity on efficiency of photovoltaic cells." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16.5: 2920-2925.

Zaoui, F., Titaouine, A., Becherif, M., Emziane, M. and Aboubou, A., 2015 "A Combined Experimental and Simulation Study on the Effects of Irradiance and Temperature on Photovoltaic Modules." Energy Procedia 75: 373-380.

Radziemska, E., 2003 "The effect of temperature on the power drop in crystalline silicon solar cells." Renewable Energy 28.1: 1-12.

Villalva, Marcelo Gradella, and Jonas Rafael Gazoli. 2009 "Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays." Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 24.5: 1198-1208.

Schwingshackl, C., Petitta, M., Wagner, J.E., Belluardo, G., Moser, D., Castelli, M., Zebisch, M. and Tetzlaff, A., 2013 "Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation." Energy Procedia 40: 77-86.

Belhachat, F., and C. Larbes, 2015 "Modeling, analysis and comparison of solar photovoltaic array configurations under partial shading conditions." Solar Energy 120: 399-418.

Bai, J., Cao, Y., Hao, Y., Zhang, Z., Liu, S. and Cao, F., 2015"Characteristic output of PV systems under partial shading or mismatch conditions." Solar Energy 112: 41-54.

Silvestre, S., Kichou, S., Chouder, A., Nofuentes, G. and Karatepe, E., 2015 "Analysis of current and voltage indicators in grid connected PV (photovoltaic) systems working in faulty and partial shading conditions." Energy. 86 (15): 42-50

Lim, Yun Seng, and Jun Huat Tang., 2014 "Experimental study on flicker emissions by photovoltaic systems on highly cloudy region: A case study in Malaysia." Renewable Energy 64: 61-70.

Storey, Jonathan P., Peter R. Wilson, and Darren Bagnall., 2013 "Improved optimization strategy for irradiance equalization in dynamic photovoltaic arrays." Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 28.6: 2946-2956.

Wang, Y., Lin, X., Kim, Y., Chang, N. and Pedram, M., 2014"Architecture and control algorithms for combating partial shading in photovoltaic systems." Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on 33.6: 917-930.

Malathy, S. and Ramaprabha, R., 2015. Performance Enhancement of Partially Shaded Solar Photovoltaic Array Using Grouping Technique.Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 137(3), p.034505.

Picault, D., Raison, B., Bacha, S., Aguilera, J. and De La Casa, J., 2010 May "Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study." Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2010 9th International Conference on. IEEE.

Joshi, Anand S., Ibrahim Dincer, and Bale V. Reddy. "Thermodynamic assessment of photovoltaic systems." Solar Energy 83.8 (2009): 1139-1149.

Akyuz, E., Coskun, C., Oktay, Z. and Dincer, I., 2012. A novel approach for estimation of photovoltaic exergy efficiency. Energy, 44(1), pp.1059-1066.

Koehl, M., Heck, M., Wiesmeier, S. and Wirth, J., 2011. Modeling of the nominal operating cell temperature based on outdoor weathering. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 95(7), pp.1638-1646.

Radosavljević, Jasmina, and Amelija Đorđević. "Defining of the intensity of solar radiation on horizontal and oblique surfaces on earth." Facta universitatis, Series: working and living environmental protection 2.1 (2001).

El Mghouchi, Y., El Bouardi, A., Choulli, Z. and Ajzoul, T., 2016. Models for obtaining the daily direct, diffuse and global solar radiations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, pp.87-99.

Park, S.R., Pandey, A.K., Tyagi, V.V. and Tyagi, S.K., 2014. Energy and exergy analysis of typical renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, pp.105-123.

Weisser, D., 2007. A guide to life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electric supply technologies. Energy, 32(9), pp.1543-1559.

Chen, Y.T., Jhang, Y.C. and Liang, R.H., 2016. A fuzzy-logic based auto-scaling variable step-size MPPT method for PV systems. Solar Energy, 126, pp.53-63.


Online ISSN: 1309-0127;;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)