Feasibility Evaluation of the Wind Energy as an Alternative Energy Source for the Irrigation of Greenhouse Crops

Adnan Rasheed, Jong Won Lee, Hyun Woo Lee


Wind energy is evaluated as an alternative energy source for the irrigation of greenhouse crops at four different locations in Asia; Shouguang (China), Sargodha (Pakistan), Buan and Gimhae (South Korea). We studied potential of the wind resources available at each location for the use of a wind pump, to meet tomato crop (same for all locations) annual water demand. Daily and monthly evapotranspiration of the crop under different greenhouse sizes and volume of water pumped by using wind pump are determined for the water budgeting and economic analysis of the system. The concept of Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in US dollar (US$) is used for the economic assessment, and we compare LCOE of wind pump and other sources (solar photovoltaic pump, diesel pump, electricity from the grid) of water pumping being used for the irrigation purpose. The initial results indicate that the LCOE associated with diesel-powered pumps and electricity from the grid is low. However, in the case of Shouguang and Buan have not received conventional energy source yet and have adequate wind resources to fulfill the irrigation requirement of the large area. The average wind resources in Sargodha and Gimhae are found inadequate for the large area water pumping, but irrigation of medium size greenhouse could be doable. Wind pumping system’s internal rate of return found at each location, Gimhae, Buan, Shouguang and Sargodha are 4.4 %, 10.0 %, 5.2 % and below 1.0 % respectively.


levelized cost of energy; Renewable energy; Tomato evapotranspiration; Wind pumping.

Full Text:



R. C. D. M. Pires, P. R. Furlani, R. V. Ribeiro, D. Bodine Junior, E. Sakai, A. L. Lourenção, et al., "Irrigation frequency and substrate volume effects in the growth and yield of tomato plants under greenhouse conditions", Scientia Agricola, vol. 68, pp. 400-5, 2011. (Article)

G. C. Rodrigues, L. S. Pereira, "Assessing economic impacts of deficit irrigation as related to water productivity and water costs", Biosystems Engineering, vol. 103, pp. 536-51, 2009. (Article)

M. Loura, Study: Plastic greenhouse in china, 2013, pp. (Electronic Article)

R. V. U. Marcel Stallen, Greenhouse sector study South Korea, 2006, pp. 52. (Electronic Article)

S. Ali, M. Q. Mustafa, I. A. Shahbazi, "Agriculture value added and income inequality in Pakistan: a time series analysis", Ali, S, Mustafa, MQ, & Shahbazi, IA (2013) AGRICULTURE VALUE ADDED AND INCOME INEQUALIYT IN PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS Research Journal of Economics, Business and ICT, vol. 8, pp. 25-33, 2013. (Article)

M. Amer, T. U. Daim, "Selection of renewable energy technologies for a developing county: A case of Pakistan", Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 15, pp. 420-35, 2011. (Article)

A. Vardar, O. Taşkin, "Technical and economic evaluation of energy production from wind in Istanbul and surrounds", Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, vol. 26, pp. 64-9, 2015. (Article)

M. Sathyajith, Wind Energy Fundamentals, Resource Analysis and economics, New york: Springer, 2006. (Book)

R. Allen, L. Peirera, D. Raes, M. Smith. Crop evapotranspiration. FAO irrigation and drainage paper no. 56, FAO, Rome. 2015. (Article)

L. M. Kamp, L. F. Vanheule, "Review of the small wind turbine sector in Kenya: Status and bottlenecks for growth", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 49, pp. 470-80, 2015. (Article)

Z. Guo, "A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data", arXiv preprint arXiv:13053367, vol., pp., 2013. (Article)

M. Peillón, R. Sánchez, A. M. Tarquis, J. L. García-Fernández, "The use of wind pumps for greenhouse microirrigation: A case study for tomato in Cuba", Agricultural Water Management, vol. 120, pp. 107-14, 2013. (Article)

K. H. Han, Y. S. Jang, D. B. Lee, "Development of agriculture facility or greenhouse farmland ", Korean national Committe of irrigation and dranige vol., pp. 34-42, 2013. (Article)

N. M. Abdalla, X. Zhang, A. Ishag, H. Gamareldawla, "Estimating reference evapotranspiration using CROPWAT model at Guixi Jiangxi Province", State Key Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, China, vol., pp., 2010. (Article)

Z. Feng, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, "Water requirements and irrigation scheduling of spring maize using GIS and CropWat model in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region", Chinese Geographical Science, vol. 17, pp. 56-63, 2007. (Article)

P. Najafi, "Assessment of CropWat model accuracy for estimating potential evapotranspiration in arid and semi-arid region of Iran", Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS, vol. 10, pp. 2665-9, 2007. (Article)

G. Stancalie, A. Marica, L. Toulios, "Using earth observation data and CROPWAT model to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration", Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 35, pp. 25-30, 2010. (Article)

A.-K. Bouraima, Z. Weihua, W. Chaofu, "Irrigation water requirements of rice using Cropwat model in Northern Benin", International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 58-64, 2015. (Article)

N. Katerji, G. Rana, "FAO-56 methodology for determining water requirement of irrigated crops: critical examination of the concepts, alternative proposals and validation in Mediterranean region", Theoretical and applied climatology, vol. 116, pp. 515-36, 2014. (Article)

Harmanto, V. M. Salokhe, M. S. Babel, H. J. Tantau, "Water requirement of drip irrigated tomatoes grown in greenhouse in tropical environment", Agricultural Water Management, vol. 71, pp. 225-42, 2005. (Article)

R. Díaz-Méndez, A. Rasheed, M. Peillón, A. Perdigones, R. Sánchez, A. M. Tarquis, et al., "Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops: Comparison in different socio-economical frameworks", Biosystems Engineering, vol. 128, pp. 21-8, 2014. (Article)

S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, R. Floors, A. Peña, B. Brümmer, A. N. Hahmann, et al., "Long-term profiles of wind and Weibull distribution parameters up to 600 m in a rural coastal and an inland suburban area", Boundary-layer meteorology, vol. 150, pp. 167-84, 2014. (Article)

M. Raju, A. Kumar, D. Bisht, D. Rao, "Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India", Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, vol. 95, pp. 157-68, 2014. (Article)

M. M. Alam, A. K. Azad, "Unusual wind speed pattern of Sitakunda, a windy coastal location of Bangladesh", International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research, vol. 1, pp. 89-94, 2012. (Article)

J. Hernández-Moro, J. Martínez-Duart, "Analytical model for solar PV and CSP electricity costs: Present LCOE values and their future evolution", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 20, pp. 119-32, 2013. (Article)

K. Branker, M. J. M. Pathak, J. M. Pearce, "A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, pp. 4470-82, 2011. (Article)

D. Watts, D. Jara, "Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile", Renewable Energy, vol. 36, pp. 1603-13, 2011. (Article)

M. A. Hossain, M. S. Hassan, M. A. Mottalib, M. Hossain, "Feasibility of solar pump for sustainable irrigation in Bangladesh", International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 147-55, 2015. (Article)

K. Meah, S. Ula, S. Barrett, "Solar photovoltaic water pumping—opportunities and challenges", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, pp. 1162-75, 2008. (Article)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 1309-0127


ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)