Study of Energy Control Strategies for a Standalone PV/FC/UC Microgrid in a Remote

Yousef Allahvirdizadeh, Mustafa Mohamadian, Mahmoud-Reza HaghiFam


Remote (or rural) area electrification is one of the main concerns, especially in developing countries. This paper presents a detailed investigation of different energy control strategies for a standalone microgrid in a remote area. In this microgrid, solar energy is considered as the primary energy source. Besides, taking into consideration stochastic nature of PV systems, a backup system that comprises a fuel-cell stack is hybridized, to avoid lack of energy and improve the reliability of the load. A battery bank and a supercapacitor pack are integrated as storage units along with an electrolyzer, as an alternative for energy storage. The electrolyzer absorbs the surplus energy production of the PV system if the battery bank reaches the maximum state of charge. Refueling the fuel-cell system with the stored hydrogen and meeting the average demand shortage, when the PV production is not sufficient, protects the battery bank against overcharge and deep discharge. In this paper, the main purpose is studying the energy control strategies that have high response time. These strategies, that are employed to control the energy flow, the fuel consumption, the dynamic performance, the microgrid efficiency, the battery/supercapacitors SOC, the energy sources/storage units life span and etc., include: the state machine control strategy, the rule-based fuzzy logic control strategy, the ANFIS-based control strategy, the equivalent consumption minimization strategy, the external energy maximization strategy, and the PI-type fuzzy logic control strategy. An effective approach is used to design the state machine control strategy and the rule-based fuzzy logic control. Additionally, the performance of all the energy control strategies, during different battery SOCs, is investigated. Finally, simulation results and the performance comparison of all the strategies, under different operating conditions, are presented. Factors such as the fuel consumption, the fuel (and the fuel-cell) efficiency, and the battery (bank) state of charge, are used for assessment.

Total Views: 211

Full Text:



Dimitris Ipsakis, Spyros Voutetakis, Panos Seferlis, Fotis Stergiopoulos, Costas Elmasides, “Power management strategies for a stand-alone power system using renewable energy sources and hydrogen storage, “International Journal of Hydrogen Energy”, vol. 34, pp. 7081-7095.2014.

Bahram Panahandeh , Jochen Bard , Abdelkader Outzourhit , Driss Zejli, “Simulation of PV-Wind-hybrid systems combined with hydrogen storage for rural electrification”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, pp. 4185-4197, 2011.

A.S.O. Ogunjuyigbe, T.R. Ayodele, O.A. Akinola, “Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building” Applied Energy, vol.171, pp.; 153–171, 2016

Pablo Garcı´a, Juan P. Torreglosa, Luis M. Ferna´ndez , Francisco Jurado, “Optimal energy management system for standalone wind turbine/photovoltaic/hydrogen/battery hybrid system with supervisory control based on fuzzy logic”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, pp. 14146-14158, 2011.

Khazaee I, Ghazikhani M, Mohammadiunc M, “Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of a triangular channel geometry PEM fuel cell at different operating conditions”, Sci Iran, vol. 19, pp. 585-593, 2012.

Rupendra Kumar Pachauri, Yogesh K. Chauhan, “Various control schemes of power management for phosphoric acid fuel cell system”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 74, 2016.

T. Vigneysh, N. Kumarappan, “Autonomous operation and control of photovoltaic/solid oxide fuel cell/battery energy storage based microgrid using fuzzy logic controller, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, pp. 1877-1891, 2016.

Mr.Prashant Gorakhnath. Patil, Asst. Prof. Kotha Venkateshwarlu, Mr. Mohan Tukaram Patel, “Application of Super Capacitor Energy Storage in Microgrid System”, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), vol. 4, pp. 589-594, 2015.

Fengbing Li, Kaigui Xie , and Jiangping Yang, “Optimization and Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid for Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS)”, Energies vol. 8, pp. 4802-4826, 2015.

Nicu Bizon, Mihai Oproescu, Mircea Raceanu, “Efficient energy control strategies for a Standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source”, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 90, pp. 93–110. 2015

Jérémy Lagorse, Marcelo G. Simões, and Abdellatif Miraoui, “A multiagent fuzzy-logic-based energy management of hybrid systems”, IEEE transactions on industry applications, vol. 45: pp. 2122-2129, 2009.

Manuel Castaneda, Antonio Cano , Francisco Jurado , Higinio Sanchez , Luis M. Fernandez, “Sizing optimization, dynamic modeling and energy management strategies of a stand-alone PV/hydrogen/ battery-based hybrid system”,

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad, “A Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Aircraft”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 61, pp. 1320-1334, 2014.

Emad M. Natsheh, Alhussein Albarba, “Hybrid Power Systems Energy Controller Based on Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy”, vol.4, pp. 187-197, 2013.

A. Etxeberria, I. Vechiu, H. Camblong, J.-M. Vinass, “Comparison of Sliding Mode and PI Control of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Microgrid Application”, Energy Procedia, vol.12, pp. 966 – 974, 2011.

A. Tofighi and M. Kalantar, “Power Management of PV/ Battery Hybrid Power Source via Passivity-Based Control”, Renewable Energy, vol. 36, pp. 2440- 2450, 2011.

W. Zhou, C. Lou, Z. Li, L. Lu and H. Yang. Current Status of Research on, “Optimum Sizing of Stand-Alone Hybrid Solar Wind Power Generation Systems”, Applied Energy, vol. 87, pp. 380-389, 2010.

Therewith Chaiyatham and Issarachai Ngamroo, “Optimal fuzzy gain scheduling of PID controller of superconducting magnetic energy storage for power system stabilization", International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol. 9, pp. 651-666, 2013.

Pablo García, Carlos Andrés García, Luis M. Fernández, Francisco Llorens, and Francisco Jurado, “ANFIS-Based Control of a Grid- Connected Hybrid System Integrating Renewable Energies, Hydrogen and Batteries”, IEEE Transactions on industrial informatics, vol. 10, pp. 1107-1117, 2014.

ChenY-K,WuY-C,SongC-C,ChenY-, “Design and implementation of energy management system with fuzzy control for DC microgrid systems”, IEEE Trans Power Electron, vol. 28, pp. 1563–70, 2013

Kwi-Seong Jeong, Won-Yong Lee, Chang-Soo Kim, “Energy management strategies of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system using fuzzy logics”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 145, pp. 319–326, 2005.

Bouthaina Madaci , Rachid Chenni , Erol Kurt , Kamel Eddine Hemsas , “Design and control of a stand-alone hybrid power system”, International Journal of Hydrogen energy, pp. 1-12, 2016,.

Erkan Dursun, Osman Kilic, “Comparative evaluation of different power management strategies of a stand-alone PV/Wind/PEMFC

hybrid power system”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol.34, pp. 81–89, 2012; 34.

Suganya B S, Arivalahan, “Power Management of Hybrid Renewable System Integrated with Energy Storage System”, International journal of innovative research in electrical, electronics, instrumentation and control engineering, vol. 3, pp. 123-128, 2015.

Jingang Han, Jean-Frederic Charpentier, Tianhao Tang, “An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat”, pp. Energies, vol. 7, pp. 2799-2820, 2014, Doi:10.3390/en7052799.

] N. A. Luu, Q. T. Tran , and S. Bacha, “Optimal energy management for an island microgrid by using Dynamic programming method”, PowerTech IEEE Eindhoven, pp. 1-6, 2015.

Ionela Prodan, Enrico Zio, “A model predictive control framework for reliable microgrid energy management”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 61, pp. 399–409, 2014.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad, “A Robust H2-Consumption-Minimization-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More Electric Aircraft”, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, vol. 61, pp. 6148-6156, 2014.

Yunwei LI, Farzam Nejabatkhah, “Overview of control, integration and energy management of microgrids” J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy, vol. 2, pp. 212- 222, 2015.

Javier Solano Martinez,Robert I. John, Daniel Hissel, Marie-Cécile Péra, “A survey-based type-2 fuzzy logic system for energy management in hybrid electrical vehicles”, vol. 190, pp. 192-207, 2012.

Wencong Su, Jianhui Wangو "Energy Management Systems in Microgrid Operations", The Electricity Journal, vol. 25, pp. 45–60, 2012.

M. Uzunoglu, O. C. Onar, and M. S. Alam, “Modelling, control and simulation of a PV/FC/UC based hybrid power generation system for stand –alone applications”, Renewable Energy, vol. 34, pp. 509-520, 2009.

Mohammad Ali Karbaschian , Dirk S¨offkerm., “Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives”, Energies, vol. 7, pp. 3512-3536,2014.

A. T. Azar, Fuzzy Systems. Vienna, Austria: In Tech, 2010.

Robert babushka, “System identification using fuzzy logic. Control systems, Robotics and Automation”

Azar Zafari. Developing a fuzzy interface system by using genetic algorithm and expert knowledge. Master thesis, University of Twente, February, 2014.

N. Altin and I. Sefa, “DSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter”, Energ. Convers Manag, vol. 56, pp. 130–139, 2012.

S. Caux, W. Hankache, M. Fadel , D. Hissel, “On-line fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell systems”, International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 35, pp. 2134-2143, 2010.

Navneet Walia, Harsukhpreet Singh, and Anurag Sharma, “ANFIS: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System- A Survey”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 123, 32-38, 2015.

J.-S. R. Jang, “ANFIS: Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system”, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern, vol. 23, pp. 1993:665–685.

J.-S. R. Jang and C. T. Sun,”Neuro-fuzzy modeling and control”, Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, pp. 378–406, 1995.

Robert Babuška, Henk Verbruggen, “Neuro-fuzzy methods for nonlinear system identification”, Annual Reviews in Control, vol. 27, pp.73–85, 2003.

Amin Noshadi, Juan Shi, Wee Sit Lee, Peng Shi, Akhtar Kalam, “Optimal PID-type Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Multi-Input Multi-Output Active Magnetic Bearing System”, Neural computing and applications, pp. 1-16, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s00521-015-1996-7

P. García, J.P. Torreglosa, L.M. Fernández, F. Jurado, “Viability study of a FC-battery-SC tramway controlled by equivalent consumption minimization strategy”, International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 37, pp. 9368 – 9382, 2010.

Tobias Nüesch 1, Alberto Cerofolini , Giorgio Mancini , Nicolò Cavina , Christopher Onder and Lino Guzzella , “Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Energies, vol.7, pp. 3148-3178, 2014. Doi: 10.3390/en7053148.

Fazal U. Syed, Ming L. Kuang, Matt Smith, Shunsuke Okubo, and Hao Ying, “Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling Proportional–Integral Control for Improving Engine Power and Speed Behavior in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle”, IEEE transactions on vehicular technology. Vol. 58, pp. 69-84, 2009.

J.-W. Kim and S. W. Kim, “Design of incremental fuzzy PI controllers for a gas-turbine plant”, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron, vol. 8, pp. 410-414, 2003.

Nun Pitalúa-Díaz, Enrique J. Herrera-López, Guillermo Valencia-Palomo, “Comparative Analysis between Conventional PI and Fuzzy Logic PI Controllers for Indoor Benzene Concentrations Sustainability”, vol. 7, pp. 5398-5412, 2015, Doi: 10.3390/su7055398.

Krismadinata, Nasrudin Abd. Rahima Hew Wooi Ping, Jeyraj Selvaraj, “Photovoltaic module modeling using simulink/Matlab. Procedia Environmental Sciences”, vol. 17, pp. 537 – 546, 2013.

Tarak Salmi, Mounir Bouzguenda, Adel Gastli, Ahmed Masmoudi, “MATLAB/Simulink based modelling of solar photovoltaic cell”, International journal of renewable energy research, vol. 2, pp. 213-218, 2012.

Habbati Bellia, Ramdani Youcef, Moulay Fatima., “A detailed modeling of photovoltaic module using Matlab”, NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, vol. 3, pp. 53-61, 2014.

H. Bounechb, A. Bouzid, K. Nabti and H. Benalla., “Comparison of perturb & observe and fuzzy logic in maximum power point tracker for PV systems” The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability. Energy Procedia, vol. 50, pp. 677 – 684, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.06.083

O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglua, M.S. Alam, “Modeling, control and simulation of an autonomous wind turbine/photovoltaic/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid power system, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 185, pp. 1723-1783, 2008.

Bidyadhar Subudhi, Raseswari Pradhan, “A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on sustainable energy, vol. 4, pp 89-98, 2013.

Ali RezaReisi, MohammadHassanMoradi, ShahriarJamasb, “Classification and comparison of maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic system: A review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 19, pp. 2013; 19:433-443.

Loc Nguyen Khanh, Jae-Jin Seo, Yun-Seong Kim, Dong-Jun Won. Power-Management Strategies for a Grid-Connected PV-FC Hybrid System. IEEE transactions on power delivery, vol. 25, pp. 1874-1882, 2010.

Idoia San Martín, Alfredo Ursúa and Pablo Sanchis, “Modelling of PEM Fuel Cell Performance: Steady-State and Dynamic Experimental Validation”, Energies, vol. 7, pp. 670-700, 2014.

Souleman Njoya M., Olivier Tremblay, and Louis-A.Dessaint, “A Generic Fuel Cell Model for the Simulation of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference , pp. 1722 – 1729, 2009.

Junghwan Ryu, Yeongseop Park, Myoungho Sunwoo, “Electric powertrain modeling of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle and

development of a power distribution algorithm based on driving mode recognition”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, pp. 5735–5748, 2010.

Souleman NJOYA MOTAPON, “Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: evaluation of energy management schemes”, Ph.D. thesis. École de technologie supérieure university, March 2013.

Olivier Tremblay1, Louis-A, Dessaint. Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications, World Electric Vehicle Journal, vol. 3, pp. 1-10, 2009.

Keith B. Oldham, “A Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of the double layer at a (metal)/ (ionic liquid) interface”, .J. Electroanalytical Chem, vol. 613, 131-138, 2008.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 1309-0127;;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)