A Comparative Study of Energy Control Strategies for a Standalone PV/WT/FC Hybrid Renewable System

Yousef Allahvirdizadeh, Mustafa Mohamadian, Mahmoud-Reza HaghiFam



This paper aims to design and control a standalone hybrid renewable system, comprising PV panels and wind turbines as the main energy sources along with a fuel-cell stack as a support system. In an attempt to improve the stability and security of the hybrid renewable system, a battery bank, a supercapacitor pack, and an electrolyzer are integrated as storage units, due to the intermittent and fluctuant primary energy sources contribution. In this paper several energy management strategies is designed and simulated and their performance is compared. The energy management strategies taken into account for comparative investigation in the addressed hybrid renewable system are the most commonly used ones, as follows: the state machine control, the rule-based fuzzy logic control, the ANFIS-based control strategy, the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) and the external energy maximization strategy (EEMS). The Mandeni’s fuzzy interface system is taken into consideration, in the case of the fuzzy logic control. The ANFIS-based control strategy data requirements (training, checking and testing data set) are prepared via the state machine control, which determines the operation of the backup system and the storage units based on the battery state of charge and the energy demand shortage. The main contribution of the state machine control and the rule based fuzzy logic design approach, in addition to the demanded energy provision, is protecting the battery bank against deep discharge and overcharge. Moreover, the ECMS introduces a cost function based energy management strategy that minimizes the hydrogen consumption of the fuel-cell and the equivalent fuel consumption of the battery bank. In the following, the EEMS maximizes the energy of the storage banks, which results in the total fuel consumption minimization. Three scenarios are taken into account: Pulsed and Constant loads, for short term analysis, and Random loads, for long term analysis. The simulation study demonstrates successful operation of the energy management strategies for different initial battery SOCs, which are selected in a way to cover the operation of the controller in three battery SOC rangers. In addition, design requirements such as the hydrogen consumption, the fuel efficiency, and the fuel-cell stack efficiency are evaluated in the case of all the energy control strategies.


Total Views: 508

Full Text:



M.K. Deshmukh, S.S.Deshmukh, “Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, pp.235-249, 2008. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.011

Menad Dahmane, Jerome Bosche, Ahmed El-Hajjaji, “Power Management Strategy Based on Weather Prediction for Hybrid Stand-alone System”, 7th International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings Energy Procedia , 2015: pp. 330 – 340, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.12.187.

Carlos A. Hernandez-Aramburo, Tim C. Green, and Nicolas Mugniot, “Fuel Consumption Minimization of a Microgrid”, IEE transactions on industry applications, vol. 41, pp. 673-681, 2004. DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2005.847277.

LanreOlatomiwa, SaadMekhilef, M.S.Ismail, M.Moghavvemi. “Energy management strategies in hybrid renewable energy systems: A review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 62, pp. 821–83, 2016.

A.S.O. Ogunjuyigbe, T.R. Ayodele, O.A. Akinola, “Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building, Applied Energy, vol. 171, pp. 153–171, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.051.

Tao Zhou and Bruno François, “Energy Management and Power Control of a Hybrid Active Wind Generator for Distributed Power Generation and Grid Integration”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 58, 2011.

T. Vigneysh, N. Kumarappan, "Autonomous operation and control of photovoltaic/ solid oxide fuel cell/battery energy storage based microgrid using fuzzy logic controller”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, pp. 41: 1877-1891 2016. DOI 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.11.022.

Fengbing Li, Kaigui Xie , and Jiangping Yang, “Optimization and Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid for Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS)”, vol. 8, pp. 4802-4826, Energies. DOI:10.3390/en8064802.

Nicu Bizon, Mihai Oproescu, Mircea Raceanu, “Efficient energy control strategies for a Standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source. Energy Conversion and Management", vol. 90, pp. 93–110, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.002.

Wenbo Shi, Chi-Cheng Chu, and Rajit Gadh, “Distributed Optimal Energy Management in Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid”, vol. 6, pp. 1137-1146, 2015.

Wencong SuAuthor Vitae, Jianhui Wang, “Energy Management Systems in Microgrid Operations:, The Electricity Journal, vol. 25, pp. 45-60, 2012.

N. A. Luu, Q. T. Tran , and S. Bacha.h, “Optimal energy management for an island microgrid by using Dynamic programming method. PowerTech, IEEE Eindhoven, pp. 1-6, 2015. DOI: 10.1109/PTC.2015.7232678.

Ionela Prodan, Enrico Zio, “A model predictive control framework for reliable microgrid energy management. Electrical Power and Energy Systems”, vol. 61, pp. 399–409, 2014.

C. Cecati, C. Citro, and P. Siano, “Combined operations of renewable energy systems and responsive demand in a smart grid”, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, pp. 468–476, 2011.

S. Choi, S. Park, D.-J. Kang, S.-J. Han, and H.-M. Kim,”A microgrid energy management system for inducing optimal demand response”, IEEE Smart Grid Communications, 2011: DOI: 10.1109/SmartGridComm.2011.6102317 Brussels, Belgium, Oct.

Dimitris Ipsakis, Spyros Voutetakis, Panos Seferlis, Fotis Stergiopoulos, Costas Elmasides, “Power management strategies for a stand-alone power system using renewable energy sources and hydrogen storage”, International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 14, pp. 7081-70952009..

Pablo Garcı´a, Juan P. Torreglosa, Luis M. Ferna´ndez, Francisco Jurado, “Optimal energy management system for standalone wind turbine/photovoltaic/hydrogen/battery hybrid system with supervisory control based on fuzzy logic", International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 38, pp. 14146-14158, 2013.

Pablo García, Carlos Andrés García, Luis M. Fernández, Francisco Llorens, and Francisco Jurado, “ANFIS-Based Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid System Integrating Renewable Energies, Hydrogen and Batteries”, IEEE Transactions on industrial informatics, vol. 10, pp. 1107-1117, 2014.

Bouthaina Madaci ,Rachid Chenni, Erol Kurt, Kamel Eddine Hemsas, “Design and control of a stand-alone hybrid power system”, International journal of hydrogen energy, pp. 1-12, 2016.

ChenY-K,WuY-C,SongC-C,ChenY-S, “Design and implementation of energy management system with fuzzy control for DC microgrid systems”, IEEE Trans Power Electronics, vol. 28, pp. 1563–70, 2013.

Mohammad Ali Karbaschian , Dirk S¨offkerm, “Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives”, Energies, vol. 7, pp. 3512-3536, 2014.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad, “A Robust H2-Consumption-Minimization-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More Electric Aircraft”, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics vol. 61, pp. 6148-6156, 2014.

Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan, Paul W. C. Northrop, Sumitava De, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Richard D. Braatz, and Venkat R. Subramanian, “Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective”, Critical Reviews in Electrochemical and solid-state science and technology, vol. 159, pp. 31-45, 2012.

O. Tremblay, L.-A. Dessaint, and A.-I. Dekkiche, “A generic battery model for the dynamic simulation of hybrid electric vehicles”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 284–289, 2007, Sep. 9–12.

Xiaobo Dou , Xiangjun Quan, Zaijun Wu, Minqiang Hu, Jianlong Sun, Kang Yang and Minhui Xu, “Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor”, Energy Storage Systems, Energies, vol. 7, pp. 8095-8115, 2014..

V. Musolino, L. Piegari, and E. Tironi, ”New full-frequency-range supercapacitor model with easy identification procedure”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ; vol. 60: pp. 112–120, 2013, Jan.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad, “A Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Aircraft”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 61: pp. 1320-1334, 2014 March.

Phatiphat Thounthonga,∗ , Viboon Chunkagb , Panarit Sethakula , Suwat Sikkabutc , Serge Pierfederici, Bernard Davatd, “Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source”, Journal of Power Sources 2011; vol. 196, pp. 313–324.

P. García, J.P. Torreglosa, L.M. Fernández, F. Jurado, “Viability study of a FC-battery-SC tramway controlled by equivalent consumption minimization strategy”, International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 37: pp. 9368 – 9382, 2010.

Souleman njoya motapon, “Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: evaluation of energy management schemes, Ph.D. thesis" , École de technologie supérieure university March 2013.

J. Padulles, G. W. Ault, and J. R. McDonald, “An integrated SOFC plant dynamic model for power systems simulation. Journal of Power Sources, vol. 86: pp. 495–500,.2000 Mar.

Souleman Njoya M., Olivier Tremblay, and Louis-A. Dessaint, “A Generic Fuel Cell Model for the Simulation of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1722 – 1729, 2009.

Tourkia Lf, Slim A, Anis A, “Modeling, control, and simulation of a solar hydrogen/fuel cell hybrid energy system for grid connected applications”, Advances in Power Electronics, vol. 9. 2013.

Nooshin B., “Optimal management of hybrid PV/fuel cell/ battery power system: a comparison of optimal hybrid approaches”, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 42, pp. 377-393, 2015.

O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglu, M.S. Alam, “Dynamic modeling, design and simulation of a wind/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor-based hybrid power generation system”, Journal of Power Sources, vol.161, pp. 707–722, 2006.

S. Masoud Barakati, Mehrdad Kazerani, and J. Dwight Aplevich,. “Maximum Power Tracking Control for a Wind Turbine System Including a Matrix Converter. ieee transactions on energy conversion”, vol. 24, pp.705-713, 2009

Alejandro Rolan', Alvaro Luna, Gerardo Vazquez, Daniel Aguilar, Gustavo Azevedo, “Modeling of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator”, Seoul Olympic Parktel, Seoul, Korea July 5-8, 2009.

Habbati Bellia, Ramdani Youcef, Moulay Fatima, “A detailed modeling of photovoltaic module using Matlab”, NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, vol. 3, pp. :53–61, 2014.

H. Bounechb, A. Bouzid, K. Nabti and H. Benalla, “Comparison of perturb & observe and fuzzy logic in maximum power point tracker for PV systems”, The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability. Energy Procedia, vol. 50, pp. 677 – 684, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.06.083

O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglua, M.S. Alam, “Modeling, control and simulation of an autonomous wind turbine/photovoltaic/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid power system”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 185, pp. 1273–1283. 2008.

Bidyadhar Subudhi, Raseswari Pradhan, “A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on sustainable energy, vol. 4, pp. 89-98, 2013.

Loc Nguyen Khanh, Jae-Jin Seo, Yun-Seong Kim, Dong-Jun Won, “Power-Management Strategies for a Grid-Connected PV-FC Hybrid Syste” IEEE transactions on power delivery, vol. 25, pp. 1874-1882, 2010.

A. T. Azar, Fuzzy Systems. Vienna, Austria: In Tech, 2010.

S. Caux, W. Hankache, M. Fadel , D. Hissel, “On-line fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell systems. International journal of hydrogen energy” vol. 35, pp. 2134-2143, 2010.

Ahmed Mohamed, M. Elshaer, Osama Mohammed, “Control enhancement of power conditioning units for high quality PV systems”, Electric Power Systems Research , vol. 90, pp. 30– 41, 2012.

Rudi Kaiser, “Optimized battery-management system to improve storage lifetime in renewable energy systems. Journal of Power Sources” vol. 168, pp. 58–65, 2007.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad, “A Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Aircraft”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 61, pp. 1320-1334, 2014.

N. Altin and I. Sef, “DSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter”, Energy Conversion and Management; vol. 56, pp. 130–139, 2012.

Navneet Walia, Harsukhpreet Singh, Anurag Sharma, “ANFIS: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System- A Survey, International Journal of Computer Applications”, vol.123, pp. 32-38,2015.

Joyraj Chakraborty, “Anfis based opportunistic power control for cognitive radio in spectrum sharing”, Master of Science thesis, Blekinge Institute of Technology, October 2012.

Zheng, C. H., N. W. Kim, and S. W. Cha, “Optimal control in the power management of fuel cell hybrid vehicles”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, pp. 655-663, 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 1309-0127


ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)