Electricity Access Improvement Using Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A Case of Urban Poor Area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Tahia Fahrin Karim, M S Hossain Lipu, Md. Sultan Mahmud


Dhaka is one of the thickly populated cities in the world. The city is occupied by the influx of urban poor migrating to the city from rural areas in sufficient number annually. The slum dwellers are deprived by the government in terms of receiving access to authorized, reliable and affordable electricity services. The approach to provide legal electricity services as well as issues and challenges related to electricity access in the urban poor areas of Dhaka have not been well addressed yet. Moreover, there is no wide and effective policy specifically on electricity for low-income people as well as for the urban slum areas. Additionally, there are no effective steps for promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency. Therefore, renewable energy could be the promising choice to enhance the electricity access in slum areas of Dhaka. The goal of this research is to assess the present status of electricity access and identify the issues and challenges in an urban poor area of Dhaka. The research also evaluates the effectiveness of renewable energy and energy efficiency to improve electricity access. Based on a survey conducted in an urban poor area named Korail situated in Dhaka, the available resources like solar energy and solid waste are identified. The research shows that 17 MW power can be produced from solar PV against the demand of 2.6 MW. Besides, solid waste is capable of generating 1.44 MW and 1.15 MW by using the thermochemical and biochemical method respectively. Furthermore, 2 GWh electricity can be saved by replacing all the incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps which will reduce the demand during the peak hours.

Total Views: 383


Energy access, solar energy, solid waste, energy efficiency, urban poor

Full Text:



IEA, “Energy for All: Financing access for the poor,” 2011.

AGECC, “Energy for a Sustainable Future. Summary Report and Recommendations,” 2010.

UN Habitat, “Case Study: Dhaka’s extreme vulnerability to climate change,” State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009, 2009.

N. Islam, A. Mahbub, N. Nazem, G. Angeles, and P. Lance, Slums of Urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005. 2006.

S. Rashid, “Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.,” J. Health. Popul. Nutr., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 574–86, Aug. 2009.

BPDB, “Key Statistics, Present Installed Generation Capacity (MW) as on 01 January, 2017,” 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.bpdb.gov.bd/bpdb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=6. [Accessed: 23-Jan-2017].

UNDP, Towards an “Energy Plus” Approach for the Poor: An Agenda for Action for Asia and the Pacific. 2012.

M. S. H. Lipu, P. Shrestha, and S. Kumar, “Energy poverty and access to modern energy of urban poor: a case of Dhaka, Bangladesh,” Int. J. Energy Technol. Policy, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 270, 2016.

World Bank, “Dhaka: Improving Living Conditions for the Urban Poor,” 2007.

Power Division, “Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh Power Division Ministry Of Power, Energy And Mineral Resources Government of The People’s Republic Of Bangladesh,” 2008.

World bank, “Solar Program Brings Electricity to Off-the-Grid Rural Areas in Bangladesh,” 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/10/10/solar-program-brings-electricity-off-grid-rural-areas. [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].

S. M. N. Hoque, B. K. Das, and M. R. A. Beg, “Evaluation of Energy Payback and CO2 Emission of Solar Home Systems in Bangladesh,” Procedia Eng., vol. 90, pp. 675–679, 2014.

M. S. H. Lipu, M. S. Uddin, and M. A. R. Miah, “A Feasibility Study of Solar-Wind-Diesel Hybrid System in Rural and Remote Areas of Bangladesh,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 892–900, 2013.

NRSD, “Bangladesh, National Report on Sustainable Development,” United Nation Conf. Sustain. Dev., 2012.

S. Mollik, M. M. Rashid, M. Hasanuzzaman, M. E. Karim, and M. Hosenuzzaman, “Prospects, progress, policies, and effects of rural electrification in Bangladesh,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 65, pp. 553–567, 2016.

M. Z. Rahman, “Multitude of progress and unmediated problems of solar PV in Bangladesh,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 466–473, 2012.

P. K. Halder, “Potential and economic feasibility of solar home systems implementation in Bangladesh,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 65, pp. 568–576, 2016.

M. S. H. Lipu and T. Jamal, “Techno-economic Analysis of Solar Concentrating Power (CSP) in Bangladesh,” Int. J. Adv. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 750–762, 2013.

S. M. Rahman and M. M. Ahmad, “Solar Home System (SHS) in rural Bangladesh: Ornamentation or fact of development?,” Energy Policy, vol. 63, pp. 348–354, 2013.

M. F. Hossain, S. Hossain, and M. J. Uddin, “Renewable energy: Prospects and trends in Bangladesh,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 70, pp. 44–49, 2017.

S. A. Chowdhury and M. Mourshed, “Off-grid electrification with solar home systems: An appraisal of the quality of components,” Renew. Energy, vol. 97, pp. 585–598, 2016.

IDCOL, “Solar Home System Program,” 2016. [Online]. Available: http://idcol.org/home/solar. [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].

B. Van der Zwaan and A. Rabl, “Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis,” Sol. Energy, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2003.

S. Islam and A.-U. Huda, “Technical note Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living,” Renew. Energy, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 255–263, Jun. 1999.

M. H. Kabir, W. Endlicher, and J. Jägermeyr, “Calculation of bright roof-tops for solar PV applications in Dhaka Megacity, Bangladesh,” Renew. Energy, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1760–1764, 2010.

B. Sørensen, “GIS management of solar resource data,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 503–509, 2001.

M. A. H. Mondal and M. Denich, “Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for electricity generation in Bangladesh,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 2401–2413, 2010.

H. M. Zakir Hossain, Q. Hasna Hossain, M. M. Uddin Monir, and M. T. Ahmed, “Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a source of renewable energy in Bangladesh: Revisited,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 39, pp. 35–41, 2014.

K. M. N. Islam and M. Jashimuddin, “Reliability and economic analysis of moving towards wastes to energy recovery based waste less sustainable society in Bangladesh: The case of commercial capital city Chittagong,” Sustain. Cities Soc., vol. 29, pp. 118–129, 2017.

A. Matter, M. Ahsan, M. Marbach, and C. Zurbrügg, “Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh,” Waste Manag., vol. 39, pp. 321–328, 2015.

Q. Hamidul Bari, K. Mahbub Hassan, and M. Ehsanul Haque, “Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh,” Waste Manag., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2029–2036, 2012.

M. A. Sufian and B. K. Bala, “Modelling of electrical energy recovery from urban solid waste system: The case of Dhaka city,” Renew. Energy, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1573–1580, Aug. 2006.

J. Alam and W. Bole, “Energy recovery From Municipal Solid Waste in Bangladesh,” pp. 125–130, 2001.

M. D. Islam and A. Z. A. Saifullah, “Solid Waste and Sugarcane Bagasse-A Renewable Source Of Energy In Rajshahi City, Bangladesh,” pp. 33–36, 2001.

Power Division, “Vision Statement, Government of The People’s Republic of Bangladesh Vision Statement Power Division Ministry of Energy And Mineral Resources,” 2000.

K. Jamil, A. Baqui, and N. Paljor, “Knowledge and practice of contraception in Dhaka urban slums: a baseline survey.” Dhaka Bangladesh International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh [ICDDRB] 1993 May., 1993.

M. S. Korai, R. B. Mahar, and M. A. Uqaili, “The feasibility of municipal solid waste for energy generation and its existing management practices in Pakistan,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 72, no. December 2016, pp. 338–353, 2017.

M. Chakraborty, C. Sharma, J. Pandey, and P. K. Gupta, “Assessment of energy generation potentials of MSW in Delhi under different technological options,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 75, pp. 249–255, 2013.

N. Banks, “A tale of two wards: political participation and the urban poor in Dhaka city,” Environ. Urban., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 361–376, Oct. 2008.

A. Barrett and K. Dunn, “Reaching the MDGs in Urban Bangladesh Presentation at the World Bank Workshop. Towards a Strategy for Achieving MDG Outcomes in Bangladesh. Session 5: Challenges Facing the Urban Poor,” 2006.

S. Hossain, “Rapid Urban Growth and Poverty in Dhaka City,” Bangladesh e-Journal Sociol., vol. 5, no. 1, 2008.

M. Rahman, “Government and Housing for the Poor: Policy and Implementation in Bangladesh,” 2010.

RAJUK, “Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh Ministry of Housing and Public Works Preparation of Detailed Area Plan (DAP) for DMDP Location-10 Final Plan Report,” 2010.

I. M. Nazrul, “Slum Eviction and Housing Rights in Dhaka City (1975-2001),” Japanese J. Hum. Geogr., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 574–589, 2003.

S. Mahmood, “Dhaka slum dwellers live under threat of eviction,” 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/apr/11/dhaka-bangladesh-slum-dwellers-eviction. [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].

M. S. H. Lipu and A. M. W. Bhuiyan, “Electricity access in urban slum households of Bangladesh: A case of Dhaka,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, no. 5, p. 53112, Sep. 2014.

UNDP, “Energy and Poverty in Bangladesh,” 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/rbap/en/home/library/climate-and-disaster-resilience/energy-n-poverty/bangladesh.html. [Accessed: 22-Jan-2017].

M. S. H. Lipu, T. Jamal, and A. R. Miah, “Barriers to Energy Access in the Urban Poor Areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Analysis of Present Situation and Recommendations,” Int. J. Energy Econ. Policy, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 395–411, 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 1309-0127


ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)