Developing Circuits of Solid-State Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells Fabricated Utilizing Chitosan-PEG Blend as Electrolyte

Akhiruddin Maddu, Haqqi Gusra, Mohammad Nur Indro


Solid-state photoelectrochemical solar cells were fabricated using cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as photoanode and polymers blend based on chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a solid electrolyte. CdS films were deposited onto the ITO glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method. The solid-state electrolyte was made by blending between chitosan and PEG as a matrix for oxidation-reduction (redox) couple from potassium iodide/iodine (KI/I2). The individual solar cells were formed into the sandwich structure ITO/CdS/Gel electrolyte/ITO. Influence of KI/I2 in the polymer blend matrices to the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte was studied. It found that addition of KI/I2 into the polymers blend electrolyte significantly affected the performance of the solar cells. Irradiation source also significantly affected the performance of the solar cells, here was used solar light source and tungsten lamp source. To increase the electricity production, the four individual solid-state photoelectrochemical solar cells were connected together in the series, parallel and series-parallel combination circuits. Series circuit resulted in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is almost four times that of a single cell, on the other hand, the parallel circuit resulted in the short-circuit current (Isc) is also almost four times that of a single cell. Meanwhile, the combination of series-parallel circuits produced a short-circuit current (Isc) and an open-circuit voltage (Voc) values that are between the value generated by the other series and parallel circuits alone

Total Views: 98


Cadmium sulphide; chitosan-PEG blend; photoelectrochemistry; polymer electrolyte; solar cell

Full Text:



G.W. Crabtree and N.S Lewis, “Solar Energy Conversion”, Physics Today, pp. 37-42, March 2007

M. Grȁtzel, “Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy”, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Vol. 365, pp. 993–1005, February 2007

D. Wei and G. Amaratunga, “Photoelectrochemical Cell and Its Applications in Optoelectronics”, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, Vol. 2, pp. 897-912, October 2007

S. Licht, “A description of energy conversion in photoelectrochemical solar cells”, Nature Vol. 330, pp. 148 – 151, November 1987

J.-M. Philias, B. Marsan, “All-solid-state photoelectrochemical cell based on a polymer electrolyte containing a new transparent and highly electropositive redox couple”, Electrochimica Acta Vol. 44, pp. 2915-2926, April 1999

J. Chen, J. Xia, K. Fan, T. Peng, “A novel CuI-based iodine-free gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells”, Electrochimica Acta Vol. 56, pp. 5554-5560, June 2011

N. Wijeyasinghe and T. D. Anthopoulos, “Copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a hole-transport material for large-area optoelectronics”, Semiconductor Science and Technology Vol. 30, 104002, October 2015

T. M. W. J. Bandara, P. Ekanayake, M. A. K. L. Dissanayake, I. Albinsson, B-E. Mellander, “A polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquid for possible applications in photoelectrochemical solar cells”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry Vol. 14, pp. 1221–1226, July 2010

M. Y. A. Rahman, A. Ahmad, A. A. Umar, R. Taslim, M. S. Su’ait, M. M. Salleh, “Polymer electrolyte for photoelectrochemical cell and dye-sensitized solar cell: a brief review”, Ionics Vol. 20, pp. 1201-1205, September 2014

T. M. W. J. Bandara, H. D. N. S. Fernando, M. Furlani, I. Albinsson, M. A. K. L. Dissanayake, J. L. Ratnasekera, B.-E. Mellander, “Dependence of solar cell performance on the nature of alkaline counterion in gel polymer electrolytes containing binary iodides” Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, DOI: 10.1007/s10008-017-3518-2, February 2017

M. S. A. Rani, S. Rudhziah, A. Ahmad, N. S. Mohamed, “Biopolymer Electrolyte Based on Derivatives of Cellulose from Kenaf Bast Fiber”, Polymers, Vol. 6, pp. 2371-2385, September 2014

T. M. W. J. Bandara, M. A. K. L. Dissanayake, O. A. Ileperuma, K. Varaprathan, K. Vignarooban, B.-E. Mellander, “Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based, anion conducting solid polymer electrolyte for PEC solar cells”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry Vol. 12, pp. 913–917, November 2008

P. K. Singh, R K Nagarale, S. P. Pandey, H. W. Rhee, B. Bhattacharya, “Present status of solid-state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes, Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Vol. 2, 023002 (13pp), April 2011

R. Kushwaha, P. Srivastava, L. Bahadur, “Ionic liquid integrated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based quasi-solid electrolyte for efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cell”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, DOI: 10.1007/s10008-017-3517-3, January 2017

T. M. W. J. Bandara, M. F. Aziz, H. D. N. S. Fernando, M. A. Careem, A. K. Arof, B.-E. Mellander, “Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells with a novel PAN-based gel polymer electrolyte with ternary iodides”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry Vol. 19, DOI 10.1007/s10008-015-2857-0, May 2015

M. H. Buraidah, L. P. Teo, C. M. Au Yong, S. Shah, A. K. Arof, “Performance of polymer electrolyte based on chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell”, Optical Materials Vol.57, pp. 202-211, July 2016

S. Sharma, M. Khannam, S. K. Dolui, “A quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cell based on gelatin/multiwalled carbon nanotube gel electrolyte and ZnO nanorod photoanode”, Journal of Material Science: Material in Electronics; DOI 10.1007/s10854-016-4777-x, July 2016

M. Willgert, A. Boujemaoui, E. Malmström, E. C. Constable, C. E. Housecroft, “Copper-based dye-sensitized solar cells with quasi-solid nano-cellulose composite electrolytes”, RSC Advances Vol. 6, pp. 56571-56579, June 2016

M. Adi, T. Yohannes, T. Solomon, “Solid-state photoelectrochemical device based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and an ion conducting polymer electrolyte, amorphous poly(ethylene oxide) complexed with Iˉ3/Iˉ redox couple, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Vol. 83, pp. 301-310, June 2004

A.S.A. Khiar, R. Puteh, A.K. Arof, “Conductivity studies of a chitosan-based polymer electrolyte”, Physica B Vol. 373, pp. 23-27, March 2006

L.S. Ng and A.A. Mohamad, “Protonic battery based on a plasticized chitosan-NH4NO3 solid polymer electrolyte”, Journal of Power Sources Vol. 163, pp. 382-385, December 2006

N. E. A. Shuhaimi, N. A. Alias, S. R. Majid, A. K. Arof, “Electrical double layer capacitor with proton conducting κ-carrageenan chitosan electrolytes”, Functional Materials Letters Vol. 01, pp. 195-201, December 2008

J. Chupp, A. Shellikeri, G. Palui, J. Chatterjee, “Chitosan-based gel film electrolytes containing ionic liquid and lithium salt for energy storage applications”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science Vol. 132, DOI: 10.1002/APP.42143, July 2015

M.H.Buraidah, L. P. Teo, S. R. Majid, R. Yahya, R. M. Taha, and A. K. Arof, “Characterizations of Chitosan-Based Polymer Electrolyte Photovoltaic Cells”, International Journal of Photoenergy Vol. 2010, Article ID 805836, 7 pages, DOI:10.1155/2010/805836, March 2010

R. Nicu, E. Bobu, and J. Desbrieres, “Chitosan as Cationic Polyelectrolyte in Wet-End Papermaking Systems”, Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 45 (1-2), pp. 105-111, 2011.

S.A. Mohamad, R. Yahya, Z.A. Ibrahim, A.K. Arof, “ Photovoltaic activity in a ZnTe/PEO–chitosan blend electrolyte junction”, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Vol.91, pp. 1194-1198, August 2007

A. Mercy, R. S. Selvaraj, B. M. Boaz, A. Anandhi, R. Kangadurai, “Synthesis, Structural and Optical Characterisation of Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles”, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 51, pp. 448-452, June 2013

M. Thirumoorthi, J. T. J. Prakash, “Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultrathin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique”, Journal of Asian Ceramic Society Vol. 4, pp. 124-132, March 2016

Y. Xu, M.A.A. Schoonen, ‘The absolute energy positions of conduction and valence bands of selected semiconducting minerals”, American Mineralogist Vol. 85, pp. 543–556, 2000.

. G. P. Kalaignan, M-S. Kang, Y.S. Kang, “Effects of compositions on properties of PEO–KI–I2 salts polymer electrolytes for DSSC”, Solid State Ionics Vol. 177, pp. 1091-1097, March 2006

J. Wu, Z. Lan, J. Lin, M. Huang, Y. Huang, L. Fan, G. Luo, “Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells”, Chemical Reviews Vol. 115, pp 2136–2173, January 2015


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Online ISSN: 1309-0127;;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)